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D (Ex 579 nm/Em 595 nm) in a Spectromax M5, and results were normalized to sample protein content in the wells. Box plots depict mean, range ?S.D. of results (N = 8-10/group). Inter-group comparisons were made using ANOVA with the post-hoc Bonferroni multiple comparisons test of significance. Significant P-values are indicated within the panels.Tong et al. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2010, 10:4 http:/
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Ld lower than the cumulative doses needed to produce cancer in experimental animals [93-96], and beginning in early adolescence, we pair-fed the rats with either high (60 ) or low (5 ) fat containing diets. The NDEA doses were selected to be far below those needed for carcinogenesis and were based on empirical studies demonstrating absence of acute toxic effects in the rats.Longer durations of NDE
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P. Chronic HFD feeding aloneTable 3 Effects of High Fat Diet and NDEA Exposure on Biomarkers of Insulin and IGF Resistance in the CerebellummRNA AbPP Tau AChE ChAT Insulin IGF-1 IGF-2 Insulin R IGF-1R IGF-2R IRS-1 IRS-2 IRS-4 LFD+VEH 7.007 ?0.828 12.230 ?1.098 2.829 ?0.178 0.701 ?0.045 0.754 ?0.048 0.957 ?0.119 12.000 ?1.800 17.090 ?1.547 5.031 ?0.525 5.677 ?0.548 5.559 ?0.411 7.701 ?0.509 0.135 ?
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Urces. Therefore, we entertained the hypothesis that either limited or chronic low-level exposures to nitrosamines account for the observed shifts in morbidity and mortality from insulin resistance diseases. Moreover, given the clear role of high dietary fat intake as a mediator of obesity, T2DM, or cognitive impairment, we proposed that the combined effects of HFD and NDEA exposure may act additi
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Ed, suggestive of increased myelin degeneration, in these two groups. Ubiquitin immunoreactivity was virtually undetectable in control and NDEA-exposed cerebella (Figs. 1-D1, 1-D2), but slightly increased in the Purkinje and granule cell layers of HFD-fed cerebella (Fig. 1-D3). Rats exposed to NDEA, and also chronically fed with the HFD, had prominently increased ubiquitin immunoreactivity in Purk
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Software (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA). Software generated significant P-values are shown in the graphs or included in the tables.ResultsEffects of NDEA and HFD on Serum Biomarkers of T2DM (Table 2)Tissue homogenates were prepared in radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer containing protease and phosphatase inhibitors, as previously described [46]. Direct ELISAs were performed in 96-well
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F HNE were similar in the HFD+VEH and HFD+NDEA groups, and both were significantly higher than in the LFD+VEH and LFD +NDEA groups (P
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Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were significantly lower in the LFD+VEH treated control group compared with all other groups. The mean levels of both serum glucose and insulin were next higher in the LFD+NDEA group, followed by the HFD group. The HFD+NDEA treated rats had the highest mean serum glucose and insulin levels. Correspondingly, serum leptin levels were significant