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One of the newly sequenced gag genes (BS72) was apparently derived through recombination between F2 and CRF36_cpx parental viruses, one of the nef genes was apparently derived through recombination between F and CRF22_01A1 parental viruses. The phylogenetic analysis of gag sequences derived from the Cameroonian samples further revealed four sequences (BS09, BS25, BS16 and BS42) situated on diverge
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Ormation were obtained. RNA was extracted from plasma samples, reverse transcribed and PCR amplified as described previously [12] using subtype non-specific HIV-1 primers for HIV-1 full length gag [12] and nef [13] genes, and sequenced. Sequenced fragments were assembled using ChromasPro. Full length gag and nef sequences were generated and aligned using MUSCLE with manual editing in MEGA5, togeth
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Osinic acid (PolyI) and dextran sulfate (DS,Page 3 of(page number not for citation purposes)Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2008, 5:http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/5/1/WTMS-/-ZKZKModified Wright staining of ZK1 and ZK2 cell lines compared with primary alveolar macrophages Figure 3 Modified Wright staining of ZK1 and ZK2 cell lines compared with primary alveolar macrophages. Primary
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Are unaffected by the virus. There are yet questions unanswered and the virus continues to spread unabated. However these immune components are several key elements attractive targets for study that hopefully can advance the field of research.12.13. 14. 15. 16.Competing interestsThe author declares that they have no competing interests.Authors' informationsDavid Gentry Nielsen was born 27, Septemb
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Pacity of latex beads similar to primary AMs deficient in MARCO and SR-AI/II. All three clones showed significantly decreased uptake of fluorescent latex beads compared to the wild type primary AMs (Fig. 6A). Observed differences in phagocytic capacity between these clones and parental primary AMs from MS-/- mice may reflect the heterogeneity seen in populations of primary alveolar macrophages.ZK1
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Further define MARCO and SR-AI/II function, and may also be useful to identify other novel scavenger-type macrophage receptors and for additional studies of particle toxicology.BackgroundThe pulmonary alveolar macrophage (AM) plays an important role in defense of the lung [1-5]. Class A scavenger receptors (SRA) primarily expressed on the macro-phage (M? surface are critical for binding, uptake, a
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D. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractBackground: Alveolar macrophages (AM) avidly bind and ingest unopsonized inhaled particles and bacteria through class
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Ing time (mean generation time = mgt) was calculated according the formula: N = N02T/mgt. On the average, doubling time of ZK cell lines is between 12 h to 16 h in RPMI complete medium (Fig. 2). Like their parental primary AMs isolated from the MS-/- mice, all of the cell lines are adherent but trypsin-sensitive for passage. Morphology Light microscopic examination of Diff Quik, a modified Wright-