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Two samples for which only gag or nef was typed, these were classified as belonging to CRF11_cpx. Notably, despite subtypes B and C collectively accounting for approximately 75 infections worldwide [16], none of our sequences were classified as belonging to either of these clades. In 10/46 samples from which both nef and gag sequences were analysed, they were classified as belonging to different
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The antibodies are involved in release of complement and anaphylatoxins which can cause or exacerbate DHF/DSS. These systems are inextricable and strongly associated with dengue pathogenesis.Dengue Background and SignificanceThe Dengue Virus is a member of the family Flaviviridae along with other noted viruses Yellow Fever, West Nile, and Japanese Encephalitis. Dengue is a positive stranded RNA ar
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NAlveolar macrophages play a central role in lung defense [3,36,37]. The class A scavenger receptors (SRA) MARCO and SR-AI/II are expressed on alveolar macrophages and function in innate defenses against inhaled pathogens and particles [7,8,10,11,17]. However, large number of murine alveolar macrophages with SRA deficient are rarely available for in vitro studies. To further investigate the role o
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Nowledgements The authors are grateful to Andile Nofemela and Roman Ntale for technical assistance with viral sequencing. This research was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (technical co-operation project RAF/6/ 029), Poliomyelitis Research Foundation (PRF) of South Africa and the University of Cape Town, for collaborative projects with partners in the global South. We thank Ger
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Hose residing on isolated branches outside of subtrees containing previously defined HIV-1 subtype or CRF lineages. Outlier sequences on the other hand were defined as those residing on basal branches of subtrees containing previously defined HIV-1 subtype or CRF lineages. Nucleotide sequences were deposited in GenBank [JX244899-JX244948 for gag and JX244949JX245003 for nef]. Clinical and demograp
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Ogeneous cell populations. We showed here that all three of ZK cell lines responded in a manner comparable to that of primary murine alveolar macrophages. Morphologically, they are alveolar macrophage-like with Diff Quik, a modified Wright staining (Fig. 3). They all highly expressed macrophage antigens, F4/80 and CD11b on cell surfaces by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry assays (Fig.
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Itada M, Kitagawa H, Igarashi K, Hirose S, Kanakubo Y: Polyamine lowered the hepatic lipid peroxide level in rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1988, 62:235-249. Merentie M, Uimari A, Pietil?M, Sinervirta R, Kein en TA, Veps nen J, Khomutov A, Grigorenko N, Herzig KH, J ne J, Alhonen L: Oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of activated polyamine catabolism-induced acute pancr
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Ovided a very important tool to facilitate biological study of macrophages [20-23]. Several murine macrophage cell lines from bone marrow [24,25], spleen [26,27], fetal liver [28,29], and lung [30] have been successfully obtained by in vitro infection of primary cell cultures with a recombinant J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. In addition, investigation of the function of both

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