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Ing time (mean generation time = mgt) was calculated according the formula: N = N02T/mgt. On the average, doubling time of ZK cell lines is between 12 h to 16 h in RPMI complete medium (Fig. 2). Like their parental primary AMs isolated from the MS-/- mice, all of the cell lines are adherent but trypsin-sensitive for passage. Morphology Light microscopic examination of Diff Quik, a modified Wright-
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Allele primers, amplifies a 434 bp DNA fragment from SRA-deficient ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 cells. With primers for MARCO wild-type allele, amplifies a 500 bp DNA fragment from WT mice; with primers for MARCO mutant allele, amplifies a 850 bp DNA fragment from ZK cells. ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 clones exhibited both MARCO and SRA-I/II-deficient. PCR products, ca.10 l/each was resolved on a 1.5 agarose gel by gel
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R macrophages which was derived from brochoalveolar lavage (BAL) obtained from MS-/- mice [31]. Immortalization was conducted by infection of the primary AMs from MS/- mice with a retrovirus J2. The immortalized AMs were cloned by limiting dilution method. Three of the clones, designated as ZK-1, ZK-2 and ZK-6 were chosen for further characterization of macrophage phenotype and phagocytic function
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One of the newly sequenced gag genes (BS72) was apparently derived through recombination between F2 and CRF36_cpx parental viruses, one of the nef genes was apparently derived through recombination between F and CRF22_01A1 parental viruses. The phylogenetic analysis of gag sequences derived from the Cameroonian samples further revealed four sequences (BS09, BS25, BS16 and BS42) situated on diverge
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Osinic acid (PolyI) and dextran sulfate (DS,Page 3 of(page number not for citation purposes)Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2008, 5:http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/5/1/WTMS-/-ZKZKModified Wright staining of ZK1 and ZK2 cell lines compared with primary alveolar macrophages Figure 3 Modified Wright staining of ZK1 and ZK2 cell lines compared with primary alveolar macrophages. Primary
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Issecting the earliest evolutionary steps in the emergence of HIV-1M. Keywords: HIV-1 diversity, West central Africa, RDP3, Maximum likelihood, PHYMLFindings The Congo basin in west central Africa is thought to be the origin of HIV, where several cross-species transmission events from chimpanzees to humans occurred [1,2]. Cameroon, located in this region, has one of the most genetically diverse HI
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Les 1, 2). The sequences clustered with different clades and circulating recombinant forms distributed throughout the phylogenetic trees (Table 2), consistent with the breadth of HIV-1 diversity previously described in Cameroon. CRF02_AG-like viruses dominated the clade distribution, infecting 50 of the 46 participants for which both genes were sequenced (Figure 2). Participants infected with vir
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One of the newly sequenced gag genes (BS72) was apparently derived through recombination between F2 and CRF36_cpx parental viruses, one of the nef genes was apparently derived through recombination between F and CRF22_01A1 parental viruses. The phylogenetic analysis of gag sequences derived from the Cameroonian samples further revealed four sequences (BS09, BS25, BS16 and BS42) situated on diverge