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Bited a 325-bp PCR product, whereas SR-AI/II-/- mutant allele showed a 434-bp PCR product. MARCO wild type allele exhibited ca. 500-bp PCR product, and MARCO-/- mutant exhibited ca. 850-bp PCR product. All of the three cell lines are stable and Mycoplasma-free by Mycoplasma PCR ELISA test (Roche, Indianapolis, IN) during culture in the past 24 months.SR-AI/IIM WT ZK1 ZK2 ZK6 MMARCOWT ZK1 ZK2 ZKMAR
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Lightly the uptake of fluorescent latex beads by ZK1 cells (Fig. 6B). Furthermore, to determine whether the size of dextran sulfate molecules alters the effect on ZK1 cells' uptake of latex beads, we tested different sizes of DS in the binding/phagocytosis assay. The results indicated thatonly dextran sulfate with smaller molecular weight (5-8kDa) inhibited binding, whereas larger 100-500-kDa dext
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Zed SRBCs, only rare unopsonized SRBCs appeared bound to ZK1 cells; most cells did not have any unopsonized SRBCs attached. After binding, these unopsonized SRBCs were easily lysed away (Fig. 5A). Approximately 80 of ZK1 cells were positive for FcR-mediated phagocytosis of opsonized SRBCs (Fig. 5B). Similar results were seen in ZK2 and ZK6 clones (data not shown). Decreased binding and phagocytos
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Pacity of latex beads similar to primary AMs deficient in MARCO and SR-AI/II. All three clones showed significantly decreased uptake of fluorescent latex beads compared to the wild type primary AMs (Fig. 6A). Observed differences in phagocytic capacity between these clones and parental primary AMs from MS-/- mice may reflect the heterogeneity seen in populations of primary alveolar macrophages.ZK1
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R macrophages which was derived from brochoalveolar lavage (BAL) obtained from MS-/- mice [31]. Immortalization was conducted by infection of the primary AMs from MS/- mice with a retrovirus J2. The immortalized AMs were cloned by limiting dilution method. Three of the clones, designated as ZK-1, ZK-2 and ZK-6 were chosen for further characterization of macrophage phenotype and phagocytic function
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Replicates following removal of recombinant sequence fragments by a blinded fully exploratory screen for recombination using RDP3. Black squares at the end of the branches represent the gag and nef sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. The gag tree was rooted using HIV-1 group N, O, P and SIV CPZ isolates, while t
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Cpx (4 each), and clades A, F, CRF01_AE and CRF36_cpx (2 each). In addition, 22 of the studied viruses apparently had nef and gag genes from viruses belonging to different clades, with the majority (8/10) having either a nef or gag gene derived from CRF02_AG. Interestingly, five gag sequences (10 ) and three (5 ) nef sequences were neither obviously recombinant nor easily classifiable into any
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Ovided a very important tool to facilitate biological study of macrophages [20-23]. Several murine macrophage cell lines from bone marrow [24,25], spleen [26,27], fetal liver [28,29], and lung [30] have been successfully obtained by in vitro infection of primary cell cultures with a recombinant J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. In addition, investigation of the function of both