1
En 19?4.Our sample size was too small to analyze this in relation to background characteristics to explain the variation. The results of the longitudinal analysis (comparing the same women over time) and those of the cross-sectional analysis showed relatively similar results. Thus, we can interpret the cross-sectional data as generally summing up the experience of all women throughout the followup
1
N expectedly cannot speak freely. To our knowledge, this study is the first survey in Erbil city to assess the past year IPV. Prevalence of past year IPV in this study (45.3 ) is similar to those reported in Baghdad (44 ) [14], and in Omdurman, Sudan (41.6 ) [26]. However, it is lower than that reported in Madina, Saudi Arabia (58.7 ) [12] and higher than that reported in China 26 [20] and Esfaha
1
Ing/burning Pat year (overall) Moderate physical violence (overall) Slapping on face* Pushing/shaking/throwing something* Twisting arm/pulling hair* Severe physical violence (overall) Hitting with fist/something Kicking/dragging Threatening/attacking with knife or gun Choking/burning*Moderate physical act. Severe physical act.Frequency of violence Once No. ( ) 2 ?5 times No. ( ) No. >5 times ( )(
1
Broader definitions of the type of violence. Another reason is that the cultural background of male dominated societies further raises the prevalence of violence against women.Physical violenceMore than half of women in this study experienced at least one form of emotional abuse. The additional items of threatening to divorce and threatening to remarry represent aspects of emotional abuse that are
1
Uscript. RL commented the manuscript. PV participated in the designing of the analysis and commented the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Acknowledgement This study was partly financed by Academy of Finland grant 2007?010 (decision number 115088). We thank all women who participated in the trial, the trial staff at clinical centres, and the staff at the National Inst
1
Same. Some women had symptoms variably (i.e. having one or more measurements without symptoms and then again reporting symptoms). Younger women did not systematically have more bothersome symptoms than older women. Comparing the proportions of women with bothersome symptoms at various times to those in the crosssectional analysis of Table 2 reveals relatively similar percentages. For comparison, w
1
N expectedly cannot speak freely. To our knowledge, this study is the first survey in Erbil city to assess the past year IPV. Prevalence of past year IPV in this study (45.3 ) is similar to those reported in Baghdad (44 ) [14], and in Omdurman, Sudan (41.6 ) [26]. However, it is lower than that reported in Madina, Saudi Arabia (58.7 ) [12] and higher than that reported in China 26 [20] and Esfaha
1
N expectedly cannot speak freely. To our knowledge, this study is the first survey in Erbil city to assess the past year IPV. Prevalence of past year IPV in this study (45.3 ) is similar to those reported in Baghdad (44 ) [14], and in Omdurman, Sudan (41.6 ) [26]. However, it is lower than that reported in Madina, Saudi Arabia (58.7 ) [12] and higher than that reported in China 26 [20] and Esfaha