1
Is considerably higher than the rates reportedTable 2 Prevalence of lifetime and past year emotional abuse by intimate partner against womenType of violence No. Lifetime (overall) Insult Scaring/intimidation Humiliation Threatening to remarry Threatening to harm Threatening to divorce Past year (overall) Insult Scaring/intimidation Humiliation Threatening to remarry Threatening to harm Threatening
1
Ughly the same level. Table 3 gives the results of the longitudinal analysis in which the same women were followed from one survey to another. There were some differences by the number of follow-ups (how early or late the woman was recruited) as well as by compliance with the surveys (did she skip some of the surveys, group "Intermittent surveys" in Table 3). In the groups with only three or twoTa
1
Is considerably higher than the rates reportedTable 2 Prevalence of lifetime and past year emotional abuse by intimate partner against womenType of violence No. Lifetime (overall) Insult Scaring/intimidation Humiliation Threatening to remarry Threatening to harm Threatening to divorce Past year (overall) Insult Scaring/intimidation Humiliation Threatening to remarry Threatening to harm Threatening
1
N expectedly cannot speak freely. To our knowledge, this study is the first survey in Erbil city to assess the past year IPV. Prevalence of past year IPV in this study (45.3 ) is similar to those reported in Baghdad (44 ) [14], and in Omdurman, Sudan (41.6 ) [26]. However, it is lower than that reported in Madina, Saudi Arabia (58.7 ) [12] and higher than that reported in China 26 [20] and Esfaha
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Slapping was still regarded as the commonest type and choking or burning was considered the least common. The lifetime prevalence of moderate physical violence was greater than that of severe physical violence (21 vs. 17.9 ). In contrast, the past year prevalence of severe physical violence was higher than moderate physical violence (8.9 , vs. 6.2 ). Details of lifetime and past year physical IPV
1
At the studied menopausal symptoms were four times more common among those who initially expressed an interest than among those who were not interested at the time of asking [25]. Thus, at a population level, the prevalence of symptoms is much lower, but we know nothing of whether the disturbance and variability among those who have symptoms is the same as in our trial. For comparison, we studied
1
Is considerably higher than the rates reportedTable 2 Prevalence of lifetime and past year emotional abuse by intimate partner against womenType of violence No. Lifetime (overall) Insult Scaring/intimidation Humiliation Threatening to remarry Threatening to harm Threatening to divorce Past year (overall) Insult Scaring/intimidation Humiliation Threatening to remarry Threatening to harm Threatening
1
Of cases of emotional distress were attributed to IPV [40]. Studies in New Zeland and Spain and the WHO multi-country study, however, revealed negative association between partners' violence and mental health [41]. As the children who live in violent homes are at increased risk of child abuse [42], increased attention is now being focused on the children who witness domestic violence. Research est